IELTS konuşma sınavının 3. bölümü karşılıklı konuşma halinde sürdürülmektedir. Sorular 2. bölümdeki sorular ile alakalı, fakat daha geniş kapsamlıdır.
Soruyu anlayamazsam ne yapmalıyım?
Bu bölümde anlamadığınız sorular ile karşılaşma ihtimali mevcuttur. Böyle durumlarda, anlamış olduğunuzu düşündüğünüz soruya cevap vermek yerine, soruyu tekrarlatmanız daha uygundur.
Cevapları ezberlemeli miyim?
Bu kaynak; daha önce çıkmış olan IELTS konuşma soruları ve örnek cevaplar barındırmaktadır. Bazı cevaplar, sizin düşündüklerinizden ayrı olabilir. Bu tür sorulara kendi cevaplarınızı hazırlamanızı tavsiye ederim. Çünkü aklınıza gelen ilk cevabı sürdürmek daha doğal bir konuşmaya izin verir. Ezberlenmiş cevaplar ile konuşma sınavına girmek genellikle olumlu sonuçlar doğurmaz.
Cevabımı nasıl yapılandırabilirim?
IELTS konuşma sınavı 3. bölümde yer alan soruları bazen anlaması bile zordur. Bu yüzden, verilen cevabın tamamıyla soruya yönelik olması ilk ve en temel şarttır.  Bu aşamada soruya doğrudan yanıt veren kısa bir cevap sunmanız yeterli olacaktır.  İkinci aşamada neden böyle düşündüğünüzün gerekçesini sunmanız daha iyi anlaşılmanıza sebep olacaktır. Bu aynı zamanda yanıtınızın tutarlı ve akıcı olmasına katkı sağlayacaktır.  Daha sonrasında ise böyle düşünmenize sebep olan somut bir örnek sunmak gereklidir, ve  hemen akabinde ise örneği daha rahat anlaşılır hale getirecek yorumlar eklemek puanınızı yükseltecektir.
What kind of person makes a good teacher?
I believe that good teachers have the passion for helping other people. Without the desire to improve the lives of others, the profession of teaching would be unbearable. I got this impression through the most influential teachers in my education career.
Why do people choose to become teachers?
In my country, most teachers choose their career to lead a balanced life. They do not want to cope with the tiring schedule of most other jobs. For example, a teacher in my country works on average 20 hours per week. This is considerably less compared to the other professions.
Do you think education will change in the future?
I believe that the way we are educated will significantly change in the future. With the rise of internet, online teaching has already become very popular and this trend is likely to continue in the foreseeable future.
How does technology affect education?
In my opinion, technology makes education more accessible. It is now possible to complete online courses even if you live thousands of miles away from the school. Students and teachers can work on the same project by using the internet, without having to meet each other.
What kinds of organisation want to find out about people’s opinions?
I think that all types of organisations need people’s opinions so that they could improve their services. Particularly, political parties and rich corporations collaborate with research centers and recently with social media sites to collect and analyze opinions.
Do you think that questionnaires and surveys are good ways of finding out people’s opinions?
It is possible to learn about the general outlook of people with consistent questions. People may tend to lie in particular questions, but overall I cannot think of a better method to find out about what people think.
What reasons might people have for not wanting to give their opinions?
In my opinion, people mostly refrain from sharing their opinions when, they think, they are considered as taboos by the community. For example, Turkey is a country where the majority of the population has Islamic belief, and non-Muslims would not feel free to state their own opinions about religion in a questionnaire.
Do you think it would be a good idea for schools to ask students their opinions about lessons?
Of course. Students are the major component of lessons. Lessons designed without considering their opinions cannot be effective at all. If schools regularly collect feedback about lessons, they may have the chance to make necessary improvements.
What would the advantages for schools be if they asked students their opinions?
Asking students about their opinions would have several advantages. First, the school and the staff could have the chance to analyze the efficiency of their methods. Second, students would get more motivated if they see that their opinions are counted. Third, the quality of education would improve if the needs of students could be better identified.
Would there be any disadvantages in asking students’ opinions?
I don’t think there are any disadvantages that could be associated with it. Schools exist to educate students and the process should be designed according to them.
Some people think that education should be about memorising the important ideas of the past. Do you agree or disagree? Why?
I completely disagree with that idea. In my opinion, the main goal of education should be to encourage students to think creatively. For example, in Turkey, most students are forced to memorise loads of information to succeed in tests, however, in the long run, this neither benefits themselves nor the country.
Should education encourage students to have their own new ideas? Why?
I definitely think so. As for me, the prosperity of a country depends on how creative their students are. For example, students in the U.S. are encouraged to think differently, and there are already many young Americans who have created great projects.
How do you think teachers could help students develop and share their own ideas?
In order to do so, teachers should pay attention to positively reinforcing different ideas. This way, students will definitely try harder to come up with better ideas.
Should employers encourage their workers to have new ideas about improving the company? Why?
They should definitely do it. This way, they will spend more effort to contribute to the company. People perform better when they feel valuable.
Do you think people sometimes dislike ideas just because they are new? Why?
I think, some people dislike new ideas when they threaten to change their habits. People feel most comfortable when they know what to do. New ideas simply mean that they will have to try harder to cope with new problems.
What is more difficult: having new ideas or putting them into practice? Which is more important for a successful company?
It is definitely more challenging to put the ideas into practice, because it is simply impossible to predict all the consequences in advance.
Why do you think some school teachers use competitions as class activities?
All people have the urge to be better than the others. When teachers organize competitions in the classroom, most students spend more effort to complete the task. This way, they learn more as they are more engaged with the task.
Do you think it is a good thing to give prizes to children who do well at school? Why?
I definitely think that children will be more motivated to study when they are awarded with prizes for their notable achievements. This way, they will also learn that hard work is valuable.
Would you say that schools for young children have become more or less competitive since you were that age? Why?
I would definitely say that today’s schools for young children are far more competitive than in the past. It is mostly due to the fact that the population of the country has grown rapidly in the last few decades. Because of this, students have to take several tests to enroll in successful schools.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of intensive training for young sportspeople?
In my opinion, the only advantage of intensive training is that it prepares children both physically and mentally for future competitions. However, not many kids can acquire great achievements, and as a result of years of hard work, they may have physical and stress related issues.
Some people think that competition leads to a better performance from sports stars. Others think it just makes players feel insecure. What is your opinion?
Competition may have negative effects on some players, but in my opinion what makes any type of sports appealing is competition itself. As human beings, we all need a reason to do something. And in sports, our main motivation is the idea of defeating opponents.
Do you think that it is possible to become too competitive in sport? In what way?
Many sports are now considered as businesses. There is tough competition among sportspeople. In order to outperform the others, many of them regulate all aspects of their lives with the help of trainers, psychologists and doctors.
What kinds of machine are used for housework in modern homes in your country?
These days, people in my country use many different kinds of machine to do most of the housework. For example, they use the new generation of washing machines to both wash and dry the clothes. Or, they use the dishwasher to clean the dishes.
How have these machines benefited people? Are there any negative effects of using them?
Using machines for housework has enabled us to save a lot of time and energy. Thanks to that, we can now spend more time for our hobbies and personal relationships. However, relying on machines for everything in the house has made us lazier; it has become one of the factors that contribute to average weight gain.
Do you think all new homes will be equipped with household machines in the future? Why?
I definitely think so. People always choose the more comfortable way of living if they can afford. In the past, not many people could afford to buy many machines for housework, but these days all houses are equipped with similar machines that differ in quality. I cannot see why it will not be the same in the future.
What kinds of equipment do most workers need to use in offices today?
These days, almost all modern offices have made the transition to cloud-based services. In other words, they manage the whole business through software that enables online collaboration. The dependency on paper and other office stuff is almost completely over. A computer with internet access is the only thing that is required to work anymore.
How have developments in technology affected employment in your country?
I think technology has affected employment in my country in 2 different ways. On the one hand, it has reduced the need for unskilled workforce. This has increased the unemployment rate to some extent. On the other hand, it has allowed us to stop the rise in unemployment by creating new jobs in many industries such as advertising, media, web services.
Some people think that technology has brought more stress than benefits to employed people nowadays? Would you agree or disagree? Why?
I completely disagree with that. Technology is not what makes working stressful, it is the lack of necessary skills to operate new tools. In my opinion, technology has made all aspects of working easier and more efficient.
Why do people need to travel every day?
Workplaces and schools are usually confined to particular areas far from accommodation zones. Therefore, it is almost impossible to refrain from commuting, whether you work or you are a student. In addition, people also travel to use the public services such as hospitals, tax offices …
What problems can people have when they are on their daily journey, for example to work or school? Why is this?
The worst problem people have while commuting is losing too much time. If you are supposed to travel long distances and if there is heavy traffic where you are going, you may lose a few hours every day. Spending so much time without doing anything can get really annoying.
Some people say that daily journeys like these will not be so common in the future. Do you agree or disagree? Why?
I completely agree with those people. Technology has already lowered the number of commuters by allowing them to work at home. There are also many students who benefit from online courses. In the future, it is inevitable that the methods to communicate with others will advance even more and we will not have to travel this much either for work or school. In addition, almost half the people in developed countries are regular online shoppers. They just do not have to visit a store to buy something.
What do you think people can learn from travelling to other countries? Why?
By comparing the behaviour of other people with ours, we can come up with a better understanding of life. For example, people in underdeveloped countries live in harsh conditions according to our understanding: food is scarce, most have no access to the internet; some even don’t know about it, they have no fancy clothes … Yet, they are still happier than most of us. This can teach us to be happy with what we already own.
Can travel make a difference to the economy of a country? Why?
Foreign tourists tend to spend a lot more during international trips, which benefits the locals either by direct sales or by increasing employment rates. In addition, the abundance of international tourists strengthen the local currency by increasing the demand on it.
Do you think a society can benefit if its members have experience of travelling to other countries? In what ways?
In my opinion, travelling teaches the members of a society to understand and tolerate differences. It’s no wonder that it is easier to get along with people who like to travel. Travelers may teach other members of the society how to better adapt to communal life by being role models.
What are the main reasons why people organise family parties in your country?
People in my country usually organise family parties to celebrate the birth of babies and marriages. This gives them a chance to meet with family members that they can rarely see.
In some countries people spend a lot of money on parties that celebrate special family events. Is this ever true in your country? Do you think this is a good trend or a bad trend?
I think this is true in all countries. Turkey is no exception. Many people in Turkey have the tendency to show off their alleged wealth by such meetings. I believe that this is completely ridiculous. The main goal of family meetings must be to see each other, not to impress others.
Are there many differences between family parties and parties given by friends? Why do you think this is?
There are of course many differences between them. People of all age groups gather in family meetings and the party is organised accordingly with no focus on entertainment. On the other hand, parties by friends often has only one goal: have as much fun as you can.
What kinds of national celebration do you have in your country?
The national celebrations in Turkey are mostly based on battlefield victories. The one that receives the most attention is the establishment of the Republic, which occurred after a series of battles.
Who tends to enjoy national celebrations more: young people, or old people? Why?
I absolutely have no idea about who enjoys national celebrations more. But, I think that the older generations have more pride about their country due to the political atmosphere of the 20th century. Thus, they must be the ones that enjoy more. I have never seen a young person who gets excited for a national celebration.
Why do you think some people think that national celebrations are a waste of government money? Would you agree or disagree with this view? Why?
I think it is because they think that governments should use all their resources for improving public services. And I completely agree with them. The main duty of governments is to make sure that all citizens live prosperously.
Why do you think people go to restaurants when they want to celebrate something?
In special days, people do not want to waste any time for cooking and spend all the time together. In addition, some restaurants, especially in touristic places, have great scenery, which makes people feel much better.
Which are more popular in your country: fast food restaurants or traditional restaurants? Why do you think that is?
In the past, people did not even know the term fast-food in Turkey. But, they have quickly grown in number since the emergence of international brands such as Burger King. Seeing that they make a lot of money, locals also have started to run fast food restaurants.
Some people say that food in an expensive restaurant is always better than food in a cheap restaurant? Would you agree?
I think this is true for most restaurants. Preparing good food involves many stages, ranging from selecting the best ingredients to creating a better taste. It also requires a lot more qualified personnel to manage the cooking process. Cheap restaurants cannot earn enough money to meet such expenses, so I suppose that food must be better in expensive restaurants.
Do you think there will be a greater choice of food available in shops in the future, or will there be less choice?
As far as I know, the choice of food in markets has considerably grown. I do not see why it will not be the same in the future. As people get richer and technology develops, people become more open to trying new kinds of food.
What effects has modern technology had on the way food is produced?
Technology has made food production much better in several ways. First, thanks to mechanization, food is abundant in almost all countries. Second, food can be stored for longer periods without going bad and distributed rapidly. Finally, it has become cheaper to produce food since most of the work is done by machines.
How important is it for a country to be able to grow all the food it needs, without importing any from other countries?
I believe that having to import food is a great disadvantage for most countries. Imported food usually costs more and their prices fluctuate more often. On top of that, agriculture provides many jobs in both developing and underdeveloped countries. If such countries rely heavily on imported food, this will also create higher unemployment.
Do you enjoy giving and receiving gifts? Why or why not?
Of course I do. Giving gifts is a great way to make people feel better. It is a sign of how much you care about that particular person. And when it comes to receiving gifts, I don’t know anyone who wouldn’t like them. It is nice to be worth the attention of other people.
Who usually gives you gifts?
In the past, I got gifts from my parents and friends on several occasions. Yet, after marriage my wife has become the only person to give me gifts, mostly on my birthdays.
Who do you give gifts to?
I like giving gifts to my son only. He is just 2 years old and he gets extremely happy to get new toys. I also try to buy gifts for my wife, yet I cannot choose anything most of the time.
In your country when do people usually give gifts? What kind of gifts do they give?
In my country, people tend to give gifts on occasions such as weddings, birthdays and religious days. What they choose to give as a gift depends on the occasion itself and it may vary from things to use at home to clothes, books, jewelry and so on.
Do you think gift-giving customs are different now than they were in the past? How? Do you think they will change in the future? How?
I don’t think that gift-giving customs have changed. People still give gifts on special occasions such as birthdays, wedding anniversaries or so. And it will probably remain the same in the future.
What are some of the ways people can help others in the community? Which is most important?
People in a community can help others in several different ways. For example, they can actively participate in charities or volunteer organizations that aim to improve the living conditions in the community. They can also donate money or resources to them. In my opinion, it is best to co-operate with other people in organizations as they may reach much more people.
Why do you think some people like to help other people?
In my opinion, the best way to get happy for some people becomes possible by helping others. They are aware that life becomes better when everybody lives in harmony. They just cannot ignore what’s happening to others.
Some people say that people help others in the community more now than they did in the past? Do you agree or disagree? Why?
I completely disagree with that. In today’s world, people care increasingly less about each other and have become more selfish than ever. They simply have to focus more on sustaining their own needs.
What types of services, such as libraries or health centers, are available to the people who live in your area? Do you think there are enough of them?
Where I live, people have access to only health centers and they are usually overcrowded; they cannot meet the demand. Our government fails to provide enough services to its own citizens in most parts of the country. I think, their budget is not high enough to enhance them.
Which groups of people need most support in a community? Why?
Some services may be more important for a particular age group depending on the needs of the individual. For example, the quality of health services is of greater importance to the elderly.
Who do you think should pay for the services that are available to the people in the community? Should it be the government or the individual?
In my opinion, governments should take a greater role in improving the community services. They collect taxes directly from all businesses and indirectly from individuals via what they buy. In return, their priority should be to invest back in the community by improving the current services and building new ones according to the needs.
How have games changed from the time when you were a child?
When I was a child, no sportsperson was able to earn astronomical figures. But, today, their salaries are unimaginably higher compared to those days. It is also obvious that sports have now become an industry, and thus competition between clubs has become harsher.
Do you think this has been a positive change? Why?
I think that this change is totally fine. People think that the industrialization of sports has killed the spirit of sports, but I believe that it has made no difference besides allowing sportsmen to earn more. In fact, athletes are now even more motivated to improve their skills.
Why do you think children like playing games?
I think that children is always after experiences that can excite them. It can be moving a car with a different colour at the age of 2, or running faster than the others at the age of 5. Games give them the chance to try something new and exciting.
Do you think competitive games are good or bad for children? In what ways?
I cannot say that they are totally bad for children. They help kids think more and try harder to find better strategies, which helps them as adults. But, this situation can get demotivating for kids that cannot win after a few attempts. This may damage their self-confidence to some extent.
How can games sometimes help people to unite?
Especially after World War II, when nationalism was on the rise, people considered international competitions as a matter of pride. It is still quite the same in many countries. I think people like the feeling of belonging to a group that can defeat the others.
Why is competition often seen as important in today’s society?
In my opinion, innovation and improvements can occur only when there is competition. When there is no need to be better than the others, nobody would spend any extra effort to do something new. They would just keep applying the same strategies all the time.
What are the different types of meetings people often go to?
I think meetings vary dramatically in terms of goals. They may be held for overcoming a problem, or to inform the attendants about a common interest.
Some people say that no one likes to go to meetings – what do you think?
I believe that people need sensible goals to do things, and meetings are no exception. If the meeting itself can benefit the individual in a way, then attending cannot be a problem.
Why can it sometimes be important to go to meetings?
Meetings give people the opportunity to simultaneously collaborate on the same issue. This way, possible flaws could be noticed far faster. It is always better for many people to analyse the same thing rather than only a few.
Why do you think world leaders often have meetings together?
We live in a global world where everything is connected to each other. The acts of a single country may have far-reaching effects. Thus, world leaders need to meet all the time to end the conflicts between their own countries and to offer solutions to further problems.
What possible difficulties might be involved in organising meetings between world leaders?
It occurs to me that securing the meeting zone and leaders themselves must be the hardest challenge. Although not common in developed countries, the leaders of other countries are under the threat of assassination by their opponents. There may also be demonstrations around the meeting zones, which may result in unexpected consequences.
Do you think that meetings between international leaders will become more frequent in the future? Or will there be less need for world leaders to meet?
I think so. Our planet is quickly running out of resources such as oil, natural gas and fresh water. This is likely to cause great conflicts among countries that have to share them. As a result, I believe that they will have to meet more often than now to deal with them.
What do you think makes someone a good friend to a whole family?
If someone is to be a good friend to the whole family, they should be able to get along well with their children as well as the adults. I think that no family would have friends that their children do not like.
Do you think we meet different kinds of friend at different stages of our lives? In what ways are these types of friend different?
I definitely think so. Until puberty, we tend to be friends with anyone around us. The goal at these ages is just to play more games together. During puberty; however, we start to choose them according to our hobbies. For example, teenagers that listen to the same band or read the same books align more easily with each other. After puberty, profound relationships become more important, therefore the number of our friends tend to be a lot less compared to the previous ages. As adults, it becomes even harder to make friends based on hobbies because we spend a lot of time at work and with our family. Thus, our friends usually become people from work.
How easy is it to make friends with people from a different age group?
I think that when people have common goals, they can be friends regardless of age. Once people go past their 20s, the age of friends start to become less important. After the age of more or less 20, anybody can be considered an adult. In my opinion, once people are able to understand abstract notions such as religion, politics, their age somehow does not matter.
Do you think it is possible to be friends with someone if you never meet them in person? Is this real friendship?
I think it is possible. Today, many people meet on the internet, mostly on social media sites without seeing each other in person. The main idea in friendship is to communicate via common goals and hobbies or entertainment. But, I do not think that these friendships can last long. Real friendship requires emotional binding, and regular face to face interaction is necessary for that.
What kind of influence can friends have on our lives?
I believe that people are influenced by others who they spend time with. For example, a teenager whose friends deal with music will develop a taste for the same hobby as well.
How important would you say is it to have friends from different cultures?
I think it is really important to have friends from different cultures. This way, anybody can get to be more open-minded towards life. Trying to understand the customs of other people is necessary for us to learn how to respect differences.
Do people in your country enjoy going to open-air markets that sell things like food or clothes or old objects? Which type of market is more popular? Why?
Turkey is quite a populous country, with the majority of citizens being relatively poor. That’s why people need to rely on such open-air markets where the products are cheaper. Such markets are able to offer lower prices since they do not have high expenses to run their business.
Do you think markets are more suitable places for selling certain types of things? Which ones? Why do you think this is?
Not everything can be sold at markets. For example, people would like to buy clothes after trying them, yet this is not possible at markets. But, markets are great for selling fruits and vegetables, because less money is necessary to run the business, which drives the cost down.
Do you think young people feel the same about shopping at markets as older people? Why is that?
In terms of clothes shopping, young people in Turkey do not like markets at all. They tend to care more about the brand value of what they are buying, whereas the older ones focus more on the price.
What do you think are the advantages of buying things from shops rather than markets?
The products in shops usually have greater quality although they cost more. In addition, you can spend relatively more time in shops to buy a product, but in markets you have to be a little fast.
How does advertising influence what people choose to buy? Is this true for everyone?
Advertising encourages people to buy products by creating emotional connections. If the consumer associates the product with a positive experience, then the possibility of buying it goes up. And I believe that this is the same case for everyone. Everybody is somehow affected by advertisements.
Do you think that any recent changes in the way people live have affected general shopping habits? Why is this?
I think our shopping habits have also been changing just like everything else. Especially after the rise of the internet, online shopping has become quite common and it is estimated that it will soon account for almost half of all sales. It is because some people do not like to waste time for shopping. Besides, things cost cheaper online.
Why do you think some people like doing new things?
I don’t think that I’m knowledgeable enough to answer this question. It must be based on some complex brain functions. What I know is that people always do what they think is best for them. If a person volunteers to eat a completely weird meal, they must have their own kind of reasons for that. I think, trying new things gives them a sense of satisfaction.
What problems can people have when they try new activities for the first time?
It depends on the activity itself. For example, you may have no problem if you fail to learn how to dance in a club, but you may get serious injuries if you try a dangerous activity such as mountain biking or skydiving.
Do you think it’s best to do new things on your own or with other people? Why?
It depends on the person. If you think that you may get embarrassed because of unexpected failures, you should probably try new things alone. However, if you are only after some excitement, it may feel better to try them with a group.
Do you think children and adults learn to do new things the same way? How is their learning style different?
The main difference is that children do not try to learn anything to get results. They usually have no particular goal in mind. Another difference is that adults are usually more motivated to learn, while children are dependent on rewards and praise.
Some people say that it is more important to be able to learn new things now than it was in the past? Do you agree or disagree with that? Why?
I think I agree with that. Together with the huge increase in the population, everything has become more competitive. For example, in the past getting a university diploma in the past meant a decent salary, yet today there are many unemployed university graduates. You simply need to acquire more skills to get the same jobs.
In what ways can people be similar to each other?
People can be similar to each other in terms of physical appearance and behaviour. For example, the shape of my face looks almost like my father’s, while my behaviour in most situations is similar to that of my mother.
Do you think that daughters are always more similar to mothers than male relatives? What about sons and fathers?
I do not think that this is the case. Children could be more similar to the parent whose genes are more dominant. The time spent together is yet another factor that may determine it. Children usually imitate the people around them. If the daughter spends more time with her father, she may just behave more like him, not the mother.
In terms of personality, are people more influenced by their family or by their friends? In what ways?
I believe that parents must have a greater influence on personality of their children due to genetics. It is well known that some individual traits are passed on to children. Yet, it may not be reasonable to ignore the effects of friends, especially on behaviour.
Where can people in your country get information about genetic research?
Even though there may be some, I do not know where people can get such information. I suppose that universities with genetic research centers may be the best option. You may also apply to private research centers, but I do not think they will provide any assistance without charging you.
How do people in your country feel about genetic research?
As far as I see, people in my country do not seem to know much about it. What appears on media is usually about the evil side of genetic research, thus people think it may lead into catastrophes.
Should this research be funded by governments or private companies? Why?
I believe that anything related to health should be handled by governments, because private companies focus only on increasing their profit. They may be a little faster in developing treatments, but they do not help people who cannot afford them. For example, some cancer drugs are sold for astronomical prices and no poor citizen can benefit from them.
What do most people do to keep fit in your country?
In Turkey, most people do not care about being fit unless they experience health problems. They are really into eating, and the food they cook contains too much fat and spices. Only few try to lead to a healthier life by doing regular physical exercise and having a balanced diet.
How important is it for people to do some regular physical exercise?
Regular physical exercise is the one of most important requisites of a healthy body. The body ages much faster without it. In order to stop that, people of all ages should pay enough attention to working their bodies. My grandfather lived a very long and healthy life only by being physically very active every day, even though he was a chain smoker.
Why do some people think that modern lifestyles are not healthy?
In my opinion, there are 2 reasons why we are leading unhealthy lifestyles. First, although modern technology has eased our lives by machines, it has made us use less energy during the day. This has caused weight gain, which usually leads into health problems. Second, organic food has become inaccessible for the majority of people due to its high price tag, and our body cannot process processed foods without any side effects.
Why do some people choose to lead unhealthy lives?
In my opinion, the only reason why some people lead unhealthy lives is that it is much easier to do so. For example, even running for half an hour would seem very tiring for most people. Scientifically speaking, spending as little energy as possible is hard coded into our genes and it can sometimes be too hard to ignore it.
Should individuals or governments be responsible for making people’s lifestyle healthy?
Governments may use their own resources to encourage a healthy lifestyle, but it would just not work without the efforts of individuals. If a person is not willing to have a healthy diet or rejects doing physical exercise, whatever the government does is bound to fail.
What could be done to encourage people to live in a healthy way?
Governments may promote a healthier lifestyle by particular measures such as building more public sport centers, encouraging sports activities at school, organizing media campaigns against unhealthy food or so. Sooner or later, they should start being effective. For example, in many cities of Turkey open-air training tools have been installed and the number of people using them is increasing day by day.